Originally cloned as PGC-1, PGC-1α is a cold-inducible protein, highly expressed in brown fat, that was initially shown to enhance the activity of the nuclear receptors PPAR-γ and TR on the uncoupling protein -1 promoter, and was subsequently shown to coactivate other members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Studies have indicated a role for PGC1-α in hepatic gluconeogenesis. PGC-1 is expressed in a variety of tissues, principally metabolic tissues (heart, kidney, brown adipose tissue, muscle) and the central nervous system (olfactory bulb, cerebrum, hypothalamus). Variants of PGC-1 have been characterized in diabetes, diabetic retinopathy, hypertension and metabolic syndrome. Null deletion of PGC-1 results in defects in adaptive energy metabolism, muscle dysfunction, abnormal weight control and hepatic steatosis.
Puigserver P, Wu Z, Park CW, Graves R, Wright M and Spiegelman BM (1998) A cold-inducible coactivator of nuclear receptors linked to adaptive thermogenesis. Cell
Esterbauer H, Oberkofler H, Krempler F and Patsch W (1999) Human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 (PPARGC1) gene: cDNA sequence, genomic organization, chromosomal localization, and tissue expression. Genomics