Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ
PPARγ is a fatty acid-activated member of the PPAR subfamily of the nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors. Collectively the PPAR subfamily plays important roles in lipid and glucose metabolism, and has been implicated in obesity-related metabolic diseases such as hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and coronary artery disease.
PPARγ is expressed at low levels in most physiological systems, including the central nervous system (CNS), endocrine system, gastrointestinal system, reproductive system, cardiopulmonary system and metabolic tissues, but is most highly expressed in brown and white adipose tissue.
PPARγ dysfunction is associated with susceptibility to glioblastoma, familial partial lipodystrophy, atherosclerosis, hypertriglyceridemia, myocardial infarct, severe obesity, essential hypertension, insulin resistance and diabetes II diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, colon cancer, bladder cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, prostate cancer and skin cancer. Susceptibility to psoriasis, Alzheimer's disease and preterm delivery have also been observed.
Targeted disruption (knockout) of the PPARγ gene leads to defects in embryogensis, brown and white adipose tissue, the liver and biliary system, the cardiovascular system, the digestive system, homeostasis and metabolisn, muscle, hearing, the renal and urinary system and prenatal and perinatal lethality.